The 10 Commandments of Cards And How Learn More

Advantages of Using a Payment Card.

The use of the credit or debit cards is a major concern relating to safety measures in e-commerce applications. A breakdown to secure the card details can cause a major dent to an institute in terms of monetary fraud, legal policy, identity theft and loss of buyer buoyancy. Even if it’s not encrypted do not hoard the card justification code and the PIN confirmation value. Never flaunt the full financial credit number anywhere unless if required. This includes the records on databases and portable media . An agreement delivery from the disbursement gateway should accompany the shipped goods. Any transaction informed to the card possessor should contain encrypted contents through email. Informing a card carrier about a breach should follow up and actions should be done through email or by phone.

Amplifying the risk of documentation neglect in public computers is a result of consumers s given the choice of saving username or passwords. Cards are practical for daily expenses and can be used over the handset and internet. They are faster and cheaper to use than cheques. Gives swift access to money which is withdrawn from ATMs. Currency exchange are handled routinely offering a vital payment method for vacationer’s sector businesses or those promoting to clients abroad by using expense cards globally. It encourage whim purchases as the shopper does not require to have cash with them. Security is improved as one hold less cash on their premises. Exposed or discovered card particulars may result to one finding falsified purchases appearing in their testimonials. Transaction charges are expenses involved though these are not usually too expensive. Money back or loyalty points means you could in fact make money from your credit card where some cards even bid incentive to spend.

You will begin to increase a balance that requires to be repaid monthly as you use up and make purchases on your credit card. The big problem is that you are borrowing against your own funds to do it. A debit card and your depository account are directly linked. After using all of your finances in your prepaid card, you can then reload it with additional funds. The new options can be very beneficial for those who intend to pay their employees in a different manner. Numerous payment processing companies have sprung up recently.

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EDGE: A Stepping-stone Toward 3G Technologies in Pakistan

ABSTRACT

The business of wireless data is expected to grow in the region of 100-200 % per annum and the mobile communication industry agrees that wireless data services will form the foundation for future business. The enormous success of short messaging in many countries proves that people accept the benefits of non-voice services.

Enhanced Data Rate for Global Evolution (EDGE) is a technology that gives Global Systems for Mobile Communications (GSM) the capacity to handle services for the third generation of mobile telephony. It provides three times the data capacity of General packet Radio Service (GPRS). Using EDGE, operators can handle three times more subscribers than GPRS; triple their data rate per subscriber, or add extra capacity to their voice communications.

This article provides an overview of EDGE technology. In particular, starting from the introduction of this 2.5G technology I describe the core technical aspects and distinct features. I will provide a comparison with GPRS for data services and then a survey of the current state of this technology in Pakistan. I have also covered some benefits for operators and customers.

1. Introduction

The importance of wireless data and multimedia services both for business and end customers are increasing on an unparalleled scale. Enhanced Data Rates for GSM Evolution (EDGE) is a new radio interface solution and is based on an enhanced modulation. EDGE offers GSM network operators an evolution path to mobile data and multimedia services with a three fold increase of data throughput in the existing GSM spectrum. EDGE therefore provides an alternative for operators who do not have a Universal Mobile Telecommunication System (UMTS) license. Moreover it also represents a complement to UMTS for operators intending to first deploy UMTS only in densely populated areas, but who can also use EDGE to provide wide area coverage of future oriented 3G services. In the US market operators have chosen EDGE as the 3G solutions. [8].

We are presently experiencing the Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) as well as the higher   transmission  speeds of High Speed Circuit Switched Data (HSCSD), joined by the convenience of “always on-line” direct Internet connections with GPRS. [1]

EDGE, new radios interface technology with enhanced modulation, increases the HSCSD and GPRS data rates by up to three fold. EDGE modulation is going to increase the data throughput provided by the packet switched service even over 400 kbps per carrier. Similarly, the data rates of circuit switched data can be increased, or existing data rates can be achieved using fewer timeslots, saving capacity. Accordingly, these higher speed data services are referred to as EGPRS (Enhanced GPRS) and ECSD (Enhanced Circuit Switched Data).

EDGE, is a major improvement in GSM phase 2+. As a modification to existing GSM networks, EDGE does not require new network elements. [1]

In the US, for instance, EDGE is part of the IS-136 High Speed concept, which is one of the third generation Radio  Transmission  Technology (RTT) proposals from TR.45. EDGE is eventually going to be standardized which makes possible to achieve a global mobile radio system with many services characteristic to third generation systems.

2. Overview

The increased bit rates of EDGE put requirements on the GSM/GPRS network architecture. Figure. 1 illustrates the GSM/GPRS architecture, the shaded parts of which are discussed in this section. Other nodes and interfaces are not affected at all by EDGE introduction. An apparent bottleneck is the A-bis interface, which today supports up to 16 kb/s per traffic channel. With EDGE, the bit rate per traffic channel will approach 64 kb/s, which makes allocation of multiple A-bis slots to one traffic channel necessary. Alternative asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) or IP-based solutions to this problem can also be discusses.

One important fact is, however, that the 16 kb/s limit will be exceeded already by the introduction of two coding schemes (CS3 and CS4) in GPRS, which have a maximal bit rate per traffic channel of 22.8 kb/s. Consequently, the A-bis limitation problem is being solved outside the EDGE standardization, and it is therefore a GPRS related, not EDGE-related, modification. For GPRS-based packet data services, other nodes and interfaces are already capable of handling higher bit rates, and are thus not affected. For circuit-switched services, the A interface can handle 64 kb/s per user, which is not exceeded by EDGE circuit-switched bearers. [9]

2.1. Impact on GSM Network Planning

An important prerequisite, which to a large extent will determine the success of EDGE in GSM, is that a network operator be able to introduce EDGE gradually. For initial deployment, EDGE-capable transceivers will supplement standard GSM/GPRS transceivers in a subset of the existing cells where EDGE coverage is desired. Hence, an integrated mix of GSM, GPRS, and EDGE users will coexist in the same frequency band. To minimize effort and cost for the network operator, radio network planning (including cell planning, frequency setting of power and other cell parameters) must not require extensive modification.

2.1.1. Coverage Planning

One characteristic of non-transparent radio link protocols that include automatic repeat request (ARQ), is that low radio link quality only results in a lower bit rate for the user. Hence, low SIR for a user does not result in a dropped call, as for speech, but in a temporary decrease of user bit rate. For transparent bearers, which typically offer a constant bit rate, link quality control must be extended to incorporate resource allocation, in the sense that the number of dynamically allocated time slots fits the bit rate and bit error rate (BER) retirements. Transparent bearers, will thus be available in the entire GSM cell, but require fewer time slots in the center of the cell (where 8-PSK coding schemes can be used).

2.1.2. Frequency Planning

Most mature GSM networks of today have an average frequency reuse factor of around 9 (meaning that available frequencies are divided into nine frequency groups). However, there is also a trend toward tighter reuse factors. With the use of frequency hopping, multiple reuse patterns (MRP), and discontinuous  transmission  (DTX), reuse factors as low as 3 become feasible. EDGE supports a variety of reuse patterns. In fact, by its use of link quality control, EDGE can be introduced in an arbitrary frequency plan, and benefit from high SIR closer to the base stations. EDGE can be introduced in an existing GSM frequency plan, and that it also supports future high-capacity solutions based on tighter frequency reuse.

2.1.3. Radio Network Planning

An important prerequisite (and to a large extent, one that will determine the success of Edge) is that network operators should be able to introduce Edge gradually. The initial deployment of Edge-capable transceivers will supplement standard GSM transceivers in a subset of cells where Edge coverage is desired. An integrated mixture of circuit-switched, GPRS and Edge users will thus coexist in the same frequency band. To minimize operator efforts and costs, Edge-related implementation must not require extensive modification of the radio network plan (including cell planning, frequency planning, the setting of power levels and other cell parameters).

2.1.4. Channel Management

After Edge has been introduced, a cell will typically include two types of transceiver: standard GSM transceivers and Edge transceivers. Each physical channel (time slot) in the cell can be viewed as being one of at least four channel types:

1. GSM speech and GSM circuit-switched data (CSD);

2. GPRS packet data;

3. Circuit-switched data, enhanced circuits witched data (ECSD), and GSM speech;

4. Edge packet data (EGPRS), which allows a mix of GPRS and EGPRS users simultaneously.

While standard GSM transceivers only support channel types 1 and 2, Edge transceivers support all four channel types. Physical channels are dynamically defined according to terminal capabilities and needs in the cell. For example, if several speech users are active, the number of type-1 channels is increased, at the expense of GPRS and Edge channels. Obviously, channel management must be automated, to avoid the splitting of channels into static groups. Otherwise, trunking efficiency would diminish.

3. Interleaving

To increase the performance of the higher coding schemes in EGPRS (MCS7 to MCS9) even at low C/I, the interleaving procedure has been changed within the EGPRS standard. When frequency hopping is used, the radio environment is changing on a per-burst level. Because a radio block is interleaved and transmitted over four bursts for GPRS, each burst may experience a completely different interference environment. [7]

If just one of the four bursts is not properly received, the entire radio block will not be properly decoded and will have to be retransmitted. In the case of CS4 for GPRS, hardly any error protection is used at all. With EGPRS, the standard handles the higher coding scheme differently than GPRS to combat this problem. MCS7, MCS8 and MCS9 actually transmit two radio blocks over the four bursts, and the interleaving occurs over two bursts instead of four. This reduces the number of bursts that must be retransmitted should errors occur. The likelihood of receiving two consecutive error free bursts is higher than receiving four consecutive error free bursts. This means that the higher coding schemes

for EDGE have a better robustness with regard to frequency hopping.

4. EDGE & GPRS

EDGE, or the Enhanced Data Rate for Global Evolution, is the new mantra in the Global Internet Connectivity scene. EDGE is the new name for GSM 384. The technology was named GSM 384 because of the fact that it provided Data  Transmission  at a rate of 384 Kbps. It consists of the 8 pattern time slot, and the speed could be achieved when all the 8 time slots were used. The idea behind EDGE is to obtain even higher data rates on the current 200 KHz GSM carrier, by changing the type of the modulation used.

Now, this is the most striking feature. EDGE, as being once a GSM technology, works on the existing GSM or the TDMA carriers, and enables them to many of the 3G services. Although EDGE will have a little technical impact, since its fully based on GSM or the TDMA carriers, but it might just get an EDGE over the up coming technologies, and of course, the GPRS. With EDGE, the operators and service providers can offer more wireless data application, including wireless multimedia, e-mail (Web Based), Web Infotainment, and above all, the technology of Video Conferencing.

Now all these technologies that were named earlier, were the clauses of the IMT-UMTS 3G Package. But, with EDGE, we can get all these 3G services on our existing GSM phones, which might just prove to be a boon to the user.

The current scenario clearly states that EDGE will definitely score higher than GPRS. The former allows its users to increase the data speed and throughput capacity, to around 3-4 times higher than GPRS.

Secondly, it allows the existing GSM or the TDMA carriers to give the sophisticated 3G services. And with 1600 Million subscribers of GSM in over 170 countries, offer the full Global Roaming, anywhere between India to Japan and to San Francisco. Based on an 8 PSK modulation, it allows higher bit rate across the air Interface. There is one symbol for every 3 bits. Thus, EDGE Rate is equal to 3x GPRS Rate.

5. Future Evolution Towards WCDMA

The next evolutionary step for the GSM/EDGE cellular system includes enhancements of service provisioning for the packet-switched domain with the service provisioning in UMTS/UTRAN (UMTS terrestrial radio access network). GERAN will provide improved support for all quality of service (QoS) classes defined for UMTS: interactive, background, streaming and conversational. By doing so, a new range of applications, including IP multimedia applications, will be adequately supported. This part of the GSM/EDGE evolution focuses on support for the conversational and streaming service classes, because adequate support for interactive and background services already exists. Additionally, parallel simultaneous bearers will support multimedia applications with different QoS characteristics towards the same MS, such as multiple media streams handled through IMS domain. A driver for such evolution on the packet-switched side is the paradigm shift within the telecommunications world from circuit to packet-switched communications.

Both the core network defined for GPRS and the current GSM/EDGE radio access network require modifications to support enhanced packet services. The GPRS/EGPRS networks can quickly and cost effectively evolve with market needs, and align with services provided by WCDMA networks. The current evolution of GSM/EDGE, which covers all of the above aspects, is being standardized in 3GPP TSG GERAN. [4]

6. EDGE in Pakistan

Pakistan has the sixth largest population in the world – approximately 150 million. There are currently four mobile operators in the country. Mobile penetration at the end of 2003 was just 2.3% with a subscriber base of 3.4 million, while fixed line penetration was approximately 2.4%. Many geographic areas in Pakistan are without telephone coverage. To accompany recent positive economic development in Pakistan and the inherently low mobile penetration, high growth within the mobile segment is expected. At the moment the people in Pakistan are more concern with the text-enabled facility like SMS. Although the introduction of GPRS gave a new concept and new boost in Cellular network but still, people are not that much concern using Internet by their terminal. Few think that it still more costly and few believe that GPRS didn’t develop the interest for using Internet if we compared it by computer.

In April 2004 Norwegian mobile telecom operator, Telenor, bid for and ultimately won a license to operate a cellular network in Pakistan. The license covers the operation of Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM), General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) and Enhanced Data Rates for Global Evolution (EDGE) technology for the network. [14]

Telenor Pakistan has signed two deals with mobile infrastructure contractors for different areas of the network:

Nokia have signed a three-year deal to build and operate a GSM / GPRS / EDGE network to cover the central and Northern Punjab region (phase one), centered around Lahore.

Siemens have signed a deal to build a GSM / GPRS / EDGE network to cover the southern areas of Pakistan, centered around Islamabad.

Further enhancements in data capability over the core GPRS / GSM network will be provided in both networks with the installation of Enhanced Data for Global (GSM) Evolution technology. This component of the two systems will be installed after the initial roll-outs and will allow the subscribers to have the use of advanced mobile services such as downloading video and music clips, full multimedia messaging, high-speed color Internet access and email on the move.

Nortel Networks will upgrade Ufone’s existing wireless systems and supply new GSM/GPRS core network and radio access equipment, including Mobile Switching Center, Home Location Register (HLR) and advanced Base Transceiver Stations (BTS).

A key component of the Ufone expansion will be Nortel Networks BTS 12000, designed to deliver additional capacity within a GSM/GPRS network while positioning operators to drive lower costs and to offer advanced wireless services based on third generation (3G) EDGE (Enhanced Data for GSM Evolution) technology. The expansion will also include Nortel Networks Passport Packet Voice Gateway (PVG) for migration of TDM voice trunking to a packet-based infrastructure.

7. Benefits

As highlighted previously the need to reduce business risk and make the best use of existing resources is of paramount importance within today’s business environment.

7.1. Financial

GSM based networks have become the standard within the cellular landscape. As EDGE is a GSM based technology and provides an enhancement for GPRS at a little additional cost it is considered the best way in which to capitalize on existing resources. [1]

7.1.1. Radio Access Network

In most cases GPRS enabled base stations and BSC’s can be simply upgraded to EDGE by way of relatively low-cost software and hardware upgrades, which will pro-long the life cycle of the deployed RAN elements.

7.1.2. Core Network

For GPRS enhancement, there is very little modification to be completed within a GPRS enabled core network, thus enhancing the sunk core network investment.

7.1.3. Antenna Sites

There is no requirement for additional antenna sites when deploying EDGE. Assuming high quality linear amplifiers with high RF output power are used within the BTS, the coverage pattern will be the same as the existing GPRS deployment, so protecting existing site investment.

7.1.4. Spectrum Utilization

EDGE triples the GPRS data capacity whilst using the existing GSM spectrum and offers up to three times the GPRS data rate to the end user. EDGE is spectrally the most efficient radio technology for data applications requiring up to 100Kb/s throughput (compared to CDMA and WCDMA), and only WCDMA is spectrally better for higher throughputs.

7.1.5. Applications

GPRS enabled applications and services will generally not require any additional investment to become EDGE compatible. This is also valid for known WCDMA applications.

Although the financial benefits of EDGE can be apportioned to individual network elements as outlined above, one of the main business drivers is that EDGE forms an essential part of the overall GSM evolution towards a seamless multi-radio GSM/ GPRS/EDGE/WCDMA network. As mentioned previously GSM is the main standard for cellular communications worldwide and the business benefits of deploying an industry standard technology can be seen in nearly every aspect of a network deployment, from end-user devices, to applications to hardware.

7.2. For Operator

Operators can also experiences the advantages of EDGE in following ways.

7.2.1. Migration to wireless multimedia services

The operator can increase data revenues by offering attractive new types applications to end-users.

7.2.2. Improved customer satisfaction

Increased data capacity and higher data throughput will decrease response times for all data services, thus keeping end users satisfied and connected.

7.2.3. Early deployment of 3G type applications

EDGE networks are expected to emerge in year 2001, when mature markets are likely to start demanding multimedia applications.

7.2.4. Quick network implementation

EDGE will not require new network elements and EDGE capability can be introduced gradually to the network.

7.3. For User

7.3.1. Improved quality of service

Increased data capacity and higher data throughput will eventually satisfy the customers’ need for QoS.

7.3.2. Personal multimedia services

Attractive new types of applications and terminals will become available.

7.3.3. Potentially lower price per bit

Lower cost of data capacity for high-speed data applications gives the operator flexibility in pricing.

8. Conclusion

While the tug of war between access technologies – CDMA vs. UMTS vs. GSM — continues to be debated globally, EDGE provides an ideal solution for GSM carriers to add data capacity using limited spectrum. Keeping in view the fact that GSM supports more subscribers today than any other access technology (roughly 65 to 70% of the global subscriber market), and that GSM/GPRS operators are scrambling to add capacity to support user growth and launch next generation data services, the increased capacity and throughput offered by EDGE becomes very compelling. And, in a market where wireless carriers must squeeze the most out of capital outlays–past and future, it is no real surprise that we are going to see a renewed wave of interest in EDGE from our GSM customers.

Today the position of EDGE as a technology evolution of GSM is clear. Initially promoted as an alternative to WCDMA and generally a niche technology, EDGE is now regarded as a key enabler for GSM/EDGE and WCDMA operators alike. Being able to drive business value from existing GSM infrastructure and spectrum is one of the main advantages, and along-with the ability of EDGE to reduce CAPEX, time-to-market and time-to-revenue, with regards the delivery of global high-speed data services, EDGE is a must technology.

The cellular companies working in Pakistan did not have the license for the EDGE. Now as the introduction of some new companies like Telenor and WARID, it is possible that in near future Pakistan will also be able to use this facility. Then GPRS can become a real important factor in cellular network, as the people in Pakistan will use the Internet not only for downloading ring tones but also can enjoy the streaming videos by their cell phone and so many other facilities.

Do you want to transfer your thoughts into words with creativity?

Do you want to transfer your thoughts into words with creativity?

Learning a way to collect your mind and with a purpose to join the idea plus reality and convert it into words is a very tough challenge. First procedure you want to do is brainstorming, maximum writers having difficulty to provide you with original and innovative writing thoughts or try to enroll them in a best Primary Creative Writing Enrichment Singapore. These five suggestions will manual you on the way to make your concept into words.

Always maintain a notepad and a pen close to you. It does no longer be counted what size, as long as you may report your mind as they occur. You in no way recognize whilst the concept would possibly strike. Sometimes, there is a positive time and an area to be creative and make certain which you don’t pass over out that moment.

Write the entirety. You need to get into the dependency of writing everything down. It would not count number if it is just a fleeting thought, you may use that later that will help you arrange your thoughts and mind. Put all your ideas into words and re-examine what you’ve got written. If you look returned to your notes and find out that you can’t understand some of your writings, then you definitely want to alternate your note-taking fashion.

Rewrite every day. At the give up of every day, you want to undergo your notepad and switch the ones ideas that you have written into your computer. This will not simplest assist you maintain your thoughts sparkling to your mind, it’s going to additionally assist you to begin a working reproduction of your idea, that you can personalize and regulate as wished.

Critic yourself. Not simplest write their thoughts, or even enough to rewrite their thoughts, so easy. Sometimes you’ve got to drag apart the shape and from the floor to rebuild. Although the concept may additionally sound correct when you first wrote it, it could continually be higher! Write and rewrite their thoughts till they say precisely what you need them to, so long as you can see inside the parent, the paint to your mind.

It isn’t sufficient to truly write your thoughts down, you need to see the entire shape apart and reconstruct it from the floor up. Sometimes, the idea might sound exact whilst you first wrote it, but it may constantly be higher! Write and rewrite your ideas until you reach what you always photo for your mind.

Proofreading Your Work. Some writers are the usage of a sounding board, a person who’s inclined to study your work and provide their opinion and response. If you can’t find a buddy who is inclined to function a sounding board for you, there are many available websites out there that allow you to share your work and get hold of reader’s grievance. It is a continually appropriate idea to seek help from specialists whilst it comes to writing.

Thus if your child has more creative thoughts but doesn’t know how to transfer those thoughts into beautiful words? Here is a solution. Simply join them in a best Primary Creative Writing Enrichment Singapore!

Plastic T-shirt bag making machine

1.Plastic bag making machine is suitable for high density polyethylene (HDPE), the low density gathers alkene (LDPE) plastic film material.which is produces the plastic film to flat bag,
2. the performance of Plastic bag making machine is stable, the back cover is reliable, is the large, medium and small processed foods enterprise is most economical appropriately, bag sealing&cutting system equipment.
Plastic bag machine with below parts and information:
1.step motor or Japan servo motor
 ;
2.machine with photo cell;
3.produce flat open bag,patch bag and T-shirt bag;
4.suit to use LDPE and HDPE film to produce plastic bag.
polyethene plastic bag making machine
Plastic T-shirt bag

Plastic bag making machine technical Parameter :  
Model: SHXJ-A600 SHXJ-A700 SHXJ-A800 SHXJ-A900 SHXJ-A1000
width of sealing &cutting: 580 mm 680 mm 780 mm 880 mm 980 mm
length of sealing & cutting: 700 mm 1200 mm 1200 mm 1400 mm 1600 mm
speed of bag-making (pc/min): 240-400 240-400 60-100 50-100 40-100

Kingdom Machine professional produce Blown film extrusion,plastic bag machine,bottom sealing machine,side sealing machine,plastic T-shirt bag machine for Ajman,jebel ali free zone,dubai,Sharjah United Arab Emirates (UAE).

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The Motorcycle

A motorcycle is a single-track, engine-powered, two-wheeled motor vehicle. It varies considerably, depending on the purpose for which it is designed, such as sports and racing, long distance travel or off-road conditions. The first motorcycle was invented by Gottlieb Daimler and Wilhelm Maybach in Germany, in 1885. This first petroleum fueled motorcycle was named after Petroleum Reitwagen. It was designed as an expedient test bed for their new engines. This motorcycle was not practical as a safety bicycle, because its steering was zero degrees axis angle with no fork offset.

The construction of a motorcycle should be done in a way that can maximize performance for the lowest cost. Motorcycles now are usually made of telescopic forks, steel, aluminum frames which hold the front wheels and disc brakes. Power engines typically consist of four cylinders and, less commonly, up to eight cylinders, coupled with a manual five or six speed sequential transmission, which drives the swing arm mounted rear wheel by a chain, driveshaft or belt. You can see the speed meter in the middle of the steering and the main headlight in front of motorcycle. The engine is fixed between both wheels and below the seat of the driver. The silencer is usually fixed on right side. There are three types of motorcycles, dual, street and off-road purpose. Dual-purpose bikes are made to go off road and are comfortable on the street as well. Street bikes are sports bikes and scooter. Off-road motorcycles are used in motor-cross and dirt-oriented racing classes.

Motorcycles are one of the most affordable vehicles for transportation all over the world. There are around two-hundred million motorcycles worldwide, and most are used in Asia and the United States. As fuel prices increasing day-by-day, car owners are now moving themselves to use motorcycles instead, because they consume less fuel as compared to heavy vehicles. Motorcycles are usually two-seated vehicles, with one driver and one person sitting behind the driver. Honda, Yamaha, Kawasaki and Bajaj are some of the most famous companies. Motorcycles are available in different powers, 70cc to 250cc. The 125cc to 250cc motorcycles are considered as heavy bikes, which commonly use two silencers, while others have only one.

Motorcycle fuel consumption varies in different models. Which power engine is used on a bike also depends on engine displacement and riding style. In developing countries, 100cc to 200cc motorcycles show a good fuel economy. An Indian company, Bajaj, offers a superior fuel economy model, the XCD125, which consumes one liter of petrol for 100Km. Now, companies have also introduced electric motorcycles, which are nearly silent, zero emission, electric-motor-driven vehicles. However, this technology is under development, because electric motorcycles have less mileage and require a high cost on batteries.

One must use some safety precautions while riding a motorcycle, because it has a high rate of accidents, as compared to automobiles. The Fatality Analysis Reporting System showed that motorcycles are involved in dangerous accidents four times more often than cars and other heavy vehicles. Proper training must be gained before riding any kind of motorcycle. Every country should create a campaign to raise awareness about motorcycle accidents. In South Africa, the Think Bike Campaign has increased motorcycle safety and the awareness of motorcycle handling on the roads.

Why Experts Aren’t As Bad As You Think

Ideas In Securing Your Digital Projects From Cyber Security Expert Santosh Devaraj

Nowadays, we cannot underestimate threats from digital thieves. It is acknowledged that industries do find ways to secure their personal data as much as possible, however, it is also a fact that many anonymous entities are making ways to crawl into these personal data. It is said by a magazine that 95 percent of records in 2016 were breached and it came from the areas of government, retail and technology. The reason why there is a drive for this skewed activity is, according to a media source, that there are high level of personal identifying information in the records of these mentioned three sectors that make them very popular targets. The founder and CEO of Secure Logic Group Santosh Devaraj, who is a cyber security expert, says that to avoid data breach and your nightmare in public relations, extra measures can be taken for a certain company.

Secure Logic Group is an expert in the fields of payment card industry, IT services, information security management and others, and if you enlist their services, you will have a consultation in these areas. This group, which deals mainly with government and financial institutions, is aware that your company is a custodian of data that any breach or shortcoming will spell disaster or financial ruin and tarnished reputation.

Given the above importance, with the direction of Santosh Devaraj, his company was able to develop security means to eliminate effectively or minimize risks that are proven. To start your measures, your number one move is to secure your data, and this is done by penetration testing and vulnerability testing. Stressing the importance of proactive measures, Santosh Devaraj spent 15 years of compliance and audit experience with financial institutions worldwide, and has conducted research and development projects related to cybercrime.

Holding a master of information technology, Mr. Devaraj has the capability to assist your company in developing the security measures that you have been planning for a long time to be in place. Furthermore, he has certification backgrounds in areas of firewalls, security solutions and risk that qualify him of your trust and for your company.

With above qualifications and expertise, the company of Mr. Devaraj Secure Logic was able to secure a deal to help in the pioneering of electronic voting in the NSW Electoral Commission, which aid voters with disabilities to be able to vote.

In the age of digital frontier, we need cyber security professionals who can help us secure our data. Security layers then have to be embedded across the system.

Smart Ideas: Resources Revisited

Payment Processors Help Secure Your Credit Card Transactions

It is now trending for people to shop online, and when this transaction is done, they need their credit cards to pay what they will buy. As you go through this type of purchase, some things might go wrong because of internal or external reasons. Unfortunately, whether it is in the online or offline transactions, you cannot be hundred percent sure that you will not be scammed or be thieved even if your rights are protected.

People are just surprised to see their bills in big amount than the usual one they get, and paying some things listed which they do not have on hand. After looking into the situation, you will discover that there are purchases using your credit card which are not within your idea. When filing a complaint to your card company, you will be informed that you are a victim of fraud, and unfortunately for you, the card company will still let you pay even so.

Both of you and your card company do not want to experience this devastating incident of being a victim of fraud or card theft, and this is where you can make use of payment processors. Payment processors are there to protect you and your credit card company since they check both parties before any transaction is made thus it serves as a link between you as the customer and the credit card company.

Thus if you are in the habit, which we guess many are already into, of buying from online stores, you have to make sure that your online payment is coursed through a secure website so that you avoid to be in a fraud situation.

Thus in this world of automated payment processing, whether for payroll processes, or in purchase transactions, clearing payments in a fast and secure way can be assured with payment processors around. There is such an industry leader name Andrew Phillips Cardflex, who has improved this technology in the past three decades, and has found ways to check and makes our lives simpler and safer as consumers and businesses.

Financial processes were streamlined because of the many developments conducted by Mr.Phillips. With the ways that Mr.Philipps developed, checking manually has turned into an automatic job that became the initial point for securing debit and credit transactions.

The decades of experience of Mr. Phillips led to a company that is responsible for an instant receipt of workers for their tips and gratuity. If you are looking for a company for your business to have a card processing program designed for your specific needs, you can trust this company.