A Simple Plan: Experts

A Few Things that You Must Find in that Business Formation Agent

There can be so many business formation agents which you will be able to find when you are going to set up a company through the help of such business formation agent. It is most excellent that you know about them more and what they offer beforehand. These are the essential things that you need to check out if you are going to choose such company formation agent to ensure that you can have a professional as well as complete service.

The first thing which you need to make sure is that they should be registered with ACRA. This association would encourage the agents in the business formation industry to reach as well as maintain those high standards. If your formation belongs to ACRA, then you can be guaranteed that you will have a reliable as well as quality service.

You should also be sure that they have a great level of such customer service. You have to check if they have an excellent level of customer support on several media in place since it is essential when you have those questions about such formation process. They must have a great email support, live chat support or telephone support.

You must also find out if they have the services which you may require. You may have extra services like tax, accountancy, the back office services and the company secretarial services and also business plans after the incorporation. Such could make it a lot easier for the company to have such necessary accounting systems in place from the formation of the company and may indicate a great level of business expertise from that agent.

It is also really important that they are backed by those chartered accountants and advisers. If the formation agent is able to provide you with an excellent accountancy service or advice from the chartered accountant or such professional tax advice from the chartered tax adviser after formation, then they may have you as the business grows and not just when you are starting up.

Do they provide a free business consultation? There are agents that are providing free one hour consultation after such formation so that they can discuss the accounting obligations and start-up tax. Such can be a fantastic way to know all you must know for starting up your business and get answers to the questions that you have and be sure that you are able to stay compliant with those company laws and also regulations.

The personal as well as business finances need to be separate. This means that your new business will have such a new bank account.

Getting To The Point – Companies

Business Formation Tips that Every Entrepreneur Ought to Understand

You should note that a lot of preparations get required before an agency can distribute goods to the market. Also, a company need to come up with a list of objectives before it starts its production process. Therefore, to have a flourishing organization, it is desirable to make sure that you undertake the business formation correctly. Keep in mind that business structure is an essential aspect of every company. If you cannot carry out the business formation process, you should look for the best agency that meets such needs. Continue reading the article below to have the understanding of the business formation techniques that are you should incorporate.

First, partnering with the right employees is one of the business formation techniques that every businessperson need to comprehend. For that reason, you should make sure that you undertake an effective recruitment process to work with the team that will be the best fit for your corporation. For that reason, you should inspect to ensure that you hire the employees with most excellent education testimonials.

Funding your organization is the proceeding business formation technique that every entrepreneur ought to understand. Therefore, you should make sure that you know where you will getting the money to finance your corporation before you enter to the market to promote your brand. Ensure that you look for a lender to give you loan if you do not have sufficient finances while entering the market to sell a particular product or service. However, it is desirable to consider the interest rates before you apply for a loan. Pick the lender that will offer an interest rate that will be the best fit for you.

Getting flexible is in the midst of the business formation tricks that every businessperson need to understand. Therefore, you must ensure that you are flexible to be able to adapt to the fluctuations that you may encounter as your organization develops. To make your loyal clientele happy, it is desirable to make sure that you respond to their wants as the organization develops.

Additionally, reducing risk in your company is the final business formation tip that you need to apprehend. You should ensure that you look for the best business insurance approach to be in a better situation to get paid in case you encounter loss. Also, you should maintain that system to account for changes as the business grows.

In conclusion, partner with a service provider to carry out the business formation procedures if your internal team cannot undertake such services. To work with a proficient agency, you should consider Panlegis since it has high proficiency in business formation obligations.

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The Basic Principles of Preventing Infection

Basic Infection Control refers to measures designed to prevent the spread of infections or potentially infectious microorganisms to health personnel, clients and visitor. Various infection control measures are used to decrease the risk of transmission of microorganisms in hospitals.

Principles of Basic Infection Control

1. Microorganism move through space on air currents. Avoid shaking or tossing linens as these motions create currents on which these microorganisms can be transported. All isolation room doors should be closed to stop air currents.

2. Microorganisms are transferred from one surface to another whenever objects touch. When a clean item touches a less clean item, it becomes “dirty” because microorganisms are transferred to it. Keep your hands away from your hair and face. Keep linens away from your uniform. Always keep clean items separated from dirty ones, any object dropped to the floor is considered dirty.

3. Microorganisms are released into the air on droplet nuclei, whenever a person breathes or speaks. Coughing and sneezing dramatically increases the number of microorganisms released from the mouth and nose. Cover mouth when coughing and sneezing. Wash hands thoroughly.

4. Microorganisms are transferred by gravity when one item is held above another. Avoid passing dirty items over clean items or areas because it is possible for the microorganisms to drop off into a clean item or area. When storing items in a bedside stand, place a clean items on upper shelves and potentially dirty items such as bedpans on lower shelves.

5. Microorganisms move slowly on dry surfaces but very quickly through moisture. Use dry paper towel when you turn off faucets. Dry both basin before placing on bed side for storage.

6. Proper hand washing removes many of the microorganisms that would be transferred by the hands from one item to another.

Universal Precaution

1. Wear clean examination gloves for listed body fluids: Blood, semen, vaginal secretions, CSF, synovial fluid, pleural fluid, pericardial fluid, amniotic fluid, etc.

2. Wash hands:

  • a. Immediately after contact with body substances containing blood
  • b. Between patient care
  • c. Immediately after gloves are removed.

3. Wear masks and protective eyewear when appropriate.

4. Wear moisture-proof apron when appropriate.

5. Wear utility (household rubber) gloves appropriately

6. Dispose of equipment and secretions properly

7. Wear sterile gloves appropriately

8. Handle specimens of blood and listed body fluids appropriately

9. Handle soiled linens correctly:

a. Hold linen away from uniform

b. Do not shake or toss linen

c. Transport linen contaminated with blood or bloody fluids in leakage resistant proof bags.

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It can be really demanding to cope with financial difficulties. You’ll need to have help to reduce yourself on this pressure. If you are taking into consideration the options which a payday advance may offer, continue studying for a few helpful assistance that will make your choice more clear.
When wanting to achieve a cash advance as with any obtain, it is wise to take time to check around. Diverse areas have programs that fluctuate on interest rates, and appropriate kinds of security.Try to find a loan that works well in your best interest.
When you find yourself contemplating getting a speedy personal loan you ought to be mindful to adhere to the conditions and provided you can supply the funds just before they demand it. If you need to extend the relation to the money you will get a lot more costs and be charged more curiosity.
Automated rollover solutions could intensify your debt. It may get high priced when financial loans quickly replace and fees are deducted by you business banking accounts. Most of these do not call for any measures of your stuff besides establishing it up. From your bank loan immediately rolling over each expected particular date, it can be easy to forget to pay back the financing, resulting in very high fees. Take some time and look into the terminology tightly well before doing.
Utilize using a payday advance lender when you find yourself thinking of a payday loan through the internet. There are many web sites on the market which will acquire your details and then try to go with you having a lender, but this can be a very little unsafe since you are offering sensitive information about yourself.
While using the Online to have a cash advance, try to utilize from the lender’s internet site. There are tons of loan matching internet sites around, but some of them are unsafe and can make use of delicate information to grab your identification.
When you can’t get the cash you need by way of a single organization than you could possibly obtain it someplace else. Revenue degrees would be the figuring out element for these particular lending options. The financial institution can do the arithmetic and crunch the phone numbers about how much you can use based on your earnings. If you need a payday loan, this is an essential reality to take into account.
It is important to know which paperwork will be asked to buy your payday loan. In most cases, you’ll just need to bring your financial information and proof of your work, however, some businesses have distinct specifications. Ask the organization what they really want, so you don’t ought to scramble for it with the last minute.
You can find a cash advance office on each and every area currently. Online payday loans are tiny loans according to your invoice of immediate put in of any standard income. This can be a brief-phrase loan. These personal loans needs to be seen as short-term and merely used in a real crisis circumstance.
Make sure to continue to be updated with any guideline modifications in relation to your cash advance lender. Legislation is usually simply being transferred that adjustments how creditors are allowed to operate so be sure to comprehend any principle changes and how they have an impact on both you and your personal loan before you sign a contract.
On average, the normal pay day loan amount can vary involving $100, and $1500. It might not seem like a ton of money to numerous buyers, but this amount must be repaid in very little time. Typically, the repayment gets thanks inside of 14, to four weeks following the software for cash. This could find yourself jogging you broke, should you be not cautious.
In no way sign for an additional pay day loan when you already have an excellent one who you haven’t repaid nevertheless. You may think you will need the funds, nevertheless, you know on your own sufficiently good to know if it is a great idea.
If you must obtain a pay day loan, make sure you read through all small print of the loan. If there are actually charges associated with paying back early on, it depends on anyone to know them in advance. If there is anything at all you do not comprehend, will not indication.
Online payday loans are critical stuff. If mishandled, you may cause problems together with your credit score or even your bank. Payday cash loans aren’t for the money to experience around with. You may have to get it from elsewhere in the future.
When you find yourself sensation fiscal stress, it can be difficult to come up with some other possibilities. Now that you’ve considered the aforementioned article, you need to know if payday loans are best for you. Escaping an economic turmoil requirements equally quickly considering and very good considering, for your choices can have tremendous effect on your long term.

Issues about Scabies Rash

Scabies rash can be identified only if it is accompanied by other symptoms of scabies. If you have a severe, persistent rash that doesn’t seem to ease up it might be caused by infestation with scabies mites. Scabies rash is characterized through itching and soreness and it tends to intensify at night. Scabies rash may also become very irritated after taking a hot shower or bath. If the skin appears to be blistery and scratched and the presence of small burrows is revealed on the surface of the skin, it is a possible sign of scabies rash and appropriate dermatological treatment is required.

An overwhelming number of 300 million people worldwide are diagnosed with scabies each year. Scabies can be very easily acquired by simply touching a contaminated person. Although scabies is very contagious, scabies rash can’t be transmitted from a person to another. Scabies rash usually occurs when the body develops allergic reactions to scabies mites and their feces. The only contagious aspect of scabies involves the mite infestation. If the mites responsible for causing scabies are transmitted to a person, they will quickly infest the skin and the symptoms of scabies will occur within a few days. Scabies mites can be acquired through direct contact with an infested person or by touching or wearing contaminated clothes or personal items. Scabies mites can live without their human hosts for about 3 days and therefore they can easily contaminate bed sheets, clothes, towels, etc.

The main cause of scabies in people is contamination with a particular type of mite, called Sarcoptes scabiei var. hominis. This microscopic mite lives only on the bodies of human hosts and an infected person can spread it to hundreds of other persons.

It is important to note that scabies rash, just like other scabies symptoms, doesn’t occur due to improper hygiene. Although in the past, when the true nature of scabies wasn’t completely understood, people considered scabies rash to be the consequence of poor hygiene, today the cause of scabies rash is clear to most people. It is true that scabies occurs mostly to people from the lower classes of society, but this has nothing to do with hygiene. The factors that facilitate the   transmission  of scabies are overcrowding and situations that involve a lot of physical contact (factory workers). Hygiene can neither facilitate the occurrence of scabies, nor prevent it.

The most common symptoms of scabies are inflammation, discomfort, pain, swelling of the skin, pustules, burrows, nodules. However, the most intense of all seems to be the scabies rash. This symptom of scabies occurs as a result of allergic reactions to the mites’ feces, secretions, eggs and larvae.

Scabies rash is among the first symptoms that occur and it is usually the last one to disappear. Even if the condition is appropriately treated with topical medications, scabies rash may persist for another few weeks! This is due to the fact that even after they die, the mites remain under the skin and continue to produce allergies that cause scabies rash. The mites’ secretions contain substances that are toxic to the human body. However, there are ways of easing the itch, soreness and pain characteristic to scabies rash. Dermatologists usually prescribe hydrocortisone and antihistamine along with the treatment for scabies. These topical medications are usually in the form of creams, gels and ointments and they ameliorate scabies rash. However, if the scabies rash persists and even intensifies after a few weeks, it is a sign that the mite infestation hasn’t been eradicated and the treatment needs to be repeated.

Benefits of Using a VoIP Telephone

Most of you would have heard about VoIP and for those who haven’t it’s never too late. VoIP stands for Voice over Internet Protocol and is revolutionizing the telephone industry by combining the benefits of traditional analog telephones and modern day internet. VoIP telephone works by converting the analog signals into digital signal so that you get superb audio quality.

Companies now offer VoIP services all over the world at very reasonable rates. Although, it is very difficult to make people forget about traditional landline phones and make them use VoIP, but it comes with a full bag of benefits which make it very difficult to ignore. Slowly but steadily VoIP is catching up popularity among masses and classes both. Some of the main benefits of VoIP telephone over traditional phones are:

• The call rate for long distance calls is very less in VoIP thus making the landline phones not so useful.

• As compared to the pulse rate service provided by landline phone companies most VoIP service providers offer packages wherein you get unlimited talk time at a flat rate. So you don’t have to keep track of the watch while making an international call. This facility is very useful if your family lives in some other country and you are in other country for some purpose. You can interact with your family and friends for as long as you want.

• Use of VoIP for conference calling and multi way calling is relatively easy. Unlike traditional phones which only offer 3 way calling you can add as many people to your conversation as you want in VoIP. Also the facility of conference calling makes it a perfect tool for holding telephonic seminars, conferences and telephonic interviews.

• Most VoIP service providers have the option of combined plans wherein you pay for your broadband usage and VoIP usage together. Hence you can save good amount of money by using VoIP over traditional phones.

• Use of VoIP telephone will substantially cut down on your telephone bills. Even the most costly VoIP provider is very cheap when compared with traditional landline companies. Plus the quality you get is unmatchable as it is completely digital and is very likely to be affected by additional factors unlike traditional landline which used wires for   transmission  so if anything happens to the wire your service gets hampered.

• Many features for which you pay extra on your landline come free with VoIP telephone.

These along with other features make VoIP technology very hard to resist and a good alternative for traditional landline phones.

The Best Advice on Experts I’ve found

Why Should You Get An Air Conditioning Unit In Dubai

Being a city in the United Arab Emirates (UAE), there is no doubt Dubai has a hot temperature. This is the reason why an air conditioning unit is very important in almost all buildings to help out in regulating room temperatures. A lot of air conditioner distributors are setting up their businesses in Dubai but it is also very important to choose the best distributor that can guarantee you will get the best deal for your money.

If you are looking for high quality air conditioners from trustworthy ditributors, try O General Air Conditioners now! In O General Air Conditioners, you can get a wide variety of choices when it comes to air conditioning as you can get ducted or genreal split system units and even ceiling and cassette ones. O General gets their units only from the best air conditioning companies from around the globe so if you are the type that doesn’t settle for low quality products, then this distributor is probably the best one for you.

With OGeneral, you don’t only buy air conditioning units because they also have services that makes things easier for you from ac installation, ac duct, ac maintenance and ac repair. Surprisingly, O General air conditioners are also very affordable for its quality and you can really ensure that when purchasing one, you get the best air conditioner in UAE. Other than that, they also make things easier and more convenient for you by letting their own representative install the unit that you purchase so you can really say that you have a great deal for your money.

They also take so much care to their employees that if you have problems with your air conditioners, they also have a team of technicians to check them up for you. Their mechanics are experts of the brands they are distributing so you can really make sure that the repairs will go well as expected compared to hiring another technician who is not an expert of the brand of your air conditioner.

We all can’t deny it that when it comes to air conditioning units, we may sometime need assistance beyond the office hours and that is nothing to worry about in O General because they have customer service representatives that provide assistance any time and all you have to do is just give them a call.

So what are you waiting for? Stop asking yourself how to buy the right ac unit in Dubai because you already have the answer and that is through O General Air Conditioners! Purchase one of their high quality products now and get the best ac services you could ever think of. Visit the O General AC website now, call the hotline or drop by the nearest branch near you to know more about this distributor.

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Getting To The Point – Insurance

When You Want to Take Online Insurance Courses

When it comes to the industry such as the insurance, there is really a huge competition that is taking place out there and there are a lot of trainings and studies needed for one to stay in the game and one should also be updated regarding those new regulations. It won’t matter when you are an independent or captive agent because both types need licensing as well as continuing education to be able to sell such insurance policies. Since there is separate licensing for the various types of insurance, you have to know what kinds of insurance policies you are interested about selling before you start the training.

There is really nothing to worry anymore now because you can opt for the online insurance courses from Insurance Schools Inc. With this, you can be sure that you will be able to get more knowledge and be trained through the internet which is really a convenient method of learning and continuing your education regarding insurances. You can also go through those Insurance Schools Inc. reviews so that you can know more benefits.

If you are interested about getting that insurance training in such property and also casualty insurance, then this will allow you to write home and also car policies together with other policies that are similar to this. You would be able to write the life and health insurance policies if you choose to be trained in life and health. Such two groups of insurance are quite different that is why you also need different licensing for everyone. You will find it a lucrative career to be an insurance agent. You just need to make sure that you would get the training that would go with the specific field of work.

Do not forget about the importance of continuing education in this career. That ongoing professional insurance training is going to help you know more about the different methods and regulations so that you can surely stay on top. Make sure that you really do things to keep your career going strong so that you will be able to achieve the success that you want. Through the right training, then you can surely keep that insurance career of your going strong.

You can now earn that insurance continuing education credits by simply taking the online insurance CE courses from your own home. You may complete that online insurance course you have chosen which is required for certification from the different courses on the list that are actually acknowledged by the department of state insurance in the place where you are practicing. Those online insurance courses could also assist you to get such competitive advantage n that insurance market where you should prove the skill you have so that you can get more sales from those insurance policies.

The 10 Commandments of Cards And How Learn More

Advantages of Using a Payment Card.

The use of the credit or debit cards is a major concern relating to safety measures in e-commerce applications. A breakdown to secure the card details can cause a major dent to an institute in terms of monetary fraud, legal policy, identity theft and loss of buyer buoyancy. Even if it’s not encrypted do not hoard the card justification code and the PIN confirmation value. Never flaunt the full financial credit number anywhere unless if required. This includes the records on databases and portable media . An agreement delivery from the disbursement gateway should accompany the shipped goods. Any transaction informed to the card possessor should contain encrypted contents through email. Informing a card carrier about a breach should follow up and actions should be done through email or by phone.

Amplifying the risk of documentation neglect in public computers is a result of consumers s given the choice of saving username or passwords. Cards are practical for daily expenses and can be used over the handset and internet. They are faster and cheaper to use than cheques. Gives swift access to money which is withdrawn from ATMs. Currency exchange are handled routinely offering a vital payment method for vacationer’s sector businesses or those promoting to clients abroad by using expense cards globally. It encourage whim purchases as the shopper does not require to have cash with them. Security is improved as one hold less cash on their premises. Exposed or discovered card particulars may result to one finding falsified purchases appearing in their testimonials. Transaction charges are expenses involved though these are not usually too expensive. Money back or loyalty points means you could in fact make money from your credit card where some cards even bid incentive to spend.

You will begin to increase a balance that requires to be repaid monthly as you use up and make purchases on your credit card. The big problem is that you are borrowing against your own funds to do it. A debit card and your depository account are directly linked. After using all of your finances in your prepaid card, you can then reload it with additional funds. The new options can be very beneficial for those who intend to pay their employees in a different manner. Numerous payment processing companies have sprung up recently.

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EDGE: A Stepping-stone Toward 3G Technologies in Pakistan

ABSTRACT

The business of wireless data is expected to grow in the region of 100-200 % per annum and the mobile communication industry agrees that wireless data services will form the foundation for future business. The enormous success of short messaging in many countries proves that people accept the benefits of non-voice services.

Enhanced Data Rate for Global Evolution (EDGE) is a technology that gives Global Systems for Mobile Communications (GSM) the capacity to handle services for the third generation of mobile telephony. It provides three times the data capacity of General packet Radio Service (GPRS). Using EDGE, operators can handle three times more subscribers than GPRS; triple their data rate per subscriber, or add extra capacity to their voice communications.

This article provides an overview of EDGE technology. In particular, starting from the introduction of this 2.5G technology I describe the core technical aspects and distinct features. I will provide a comparison with GPRS for data services and then a survey of the current state of this technology in Pakistan. I have also covered some benefits for operators and customers.

1. Introduction

The importance of wireless data and multimedia services both for business and end customers are increasing on an unparalleled scale. Enhanced Data Rates for GSM Evolution (EDGE) is a new radio interface solution and is based on an enhanced modulation. EDGE offers GSM network operators an evolution path to mobile data and multimedia services with a three fold increase of data throughput in the existing GSM spectrum. EDGE therefore provides an alternative for operators who do not have a Universal Mobile Telecommunication System (UMTS) license. Moreover it also represents a complement to UMTS for operators intending to first deploy UMTS only in densely populated areas, but who can also use EDGE to provide wide area coverage of future oriented 3G services. In the US market operators have chosen EDGE as the 3G solutions. [8].

We are presently experiencing the Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) as well as the higher   transmission  speeds of High Speed Circuit Switched Data (HSCSD), joined by the convenience of “always on-line” direct Internet connections with GPRS. [1]

EDGE, new radios interface technology with enhanced modulation, increases the HSCSD and GPRS data rates by up to three fold. EDGE modulation is going to increase the data throughput provided by the packet switched service even over 400 kbps per carrier. Similarly, the data rates of circuit switched data can be increased, or existing data rates can be achieved using fewer timeslots, saving capacity. Accordingly, these higher speed data services are referred to as EGPRS (Enhanced GPRS) and ECSD (Enhanced Circuit Switched Data).

EDGE, is a major improvement in GSM phase 2+. As a modification to existing GSM networks, EDGE does not require new network elements. [1]

In the US, for instance, EDGE is part of the IS-136 High Speed concept, which is one of the third generation Radio  Transmission  Technology (RTT) proposals from TR.45. EDGE is eventually going to be standardized which makes possible to achieve a global mobile radio system with many services characteristic to third generation systems.

2. Overview

The increased bit rates of EDGE put requirements on the GSM/GPRS network architecture. Figure. 1 illustrates the GSM/GPRS architecture, the shaded parts of which are discussed in this section. Other nodes and interfaces are not affected at all by EDGE introduction. An apparent bottleneck is the A-bis interface, which today supports up to 16 kb/s per traffic channel. With EDGE, the bit rate per traffic channel will approach 64 kb/s, which makes allocation of multiple A-bis slots to one traffic channel necessary. Alternative asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) or IP-based solutions to this problem can also be discusses.

One important fact is, however, that the 16 kb/s limit will be exceeded already by the introduction of two coding schemes (CS3 and CS4) in GPRS, which have a maximal bit rate per traffic channel of 22.8 kb/s. Consequently, the A-bis limitation problem is being solved outside the EDGE standardization, and it is therefore a GPRS related, not EDGE-related, modification. For GPRS-based packet data services, other nodes and interfaces are already capable of handling higher bit rates, and are thus not affected. For circuit-switched services, the A interface can handle 64 kb/s per user, which is not exceeded by EDGE circuit-switched bearers. [9]

2.1. Impact on GSM Network Planning

An important prerequisite, which to a large extent will determine the success of EDGE in GSM, is that a network operator be able to introduce EDGE gradually. For initial deployment, EDGE-capable transceivers will supplement standard GSM/GPRS transceivers in a subset of the existing cells where EDGE coverage is desired. Hence, an integrated mix of GSM, GPRS, and EDGE users will coexist in the same frequency band. To minimize effort and cost for the network operator, radio network planning (including cell planning, frequency setting of power and other cell parameters) must not require extensive modification.

2.1.1. Coverage Planning

One characteristic of non-transparent radio link protocols that include automatic repeat request (ARQ), is that low radio link quality only results in a lower bit rate for the user. Hence, low SIR for a user does not result in a dropped call, as for speech, but in a temporary decrease of user bit rate. For transparent bearers, which typically offer a constant bit rate, link quality control must be extended to incorporate resource allocation, in the sense that the number of dynamically allocated time slots fits the bit rate and bit error rate (BER) retirements. Transparent bearers, will thus be available in the entire GSM cell, but require fewer time slots in the center of the cell (where 8-PSK coding schemes can be used).

2.1.2. Frequency Planning

Most mature GSM networks of today have an average frequency reuse factor of around 9 (meaning that available frequencies are divided into nine frequency groups). However, there is also a trend toward tighter reuse factors. With the use of frequency hopping, multiple reuse patterns (MRP), and discontinuous  transmission  (DTX), reuse factors as low as 3 become feasible. EDGE supports a variety of reuse patterns. In fact, by its use of link quality control, EDGE can be introduced in an arbitrary frequency plan, and benefit from high SIR closer to the base stations. EDGE can be introduced in an existing GSM frequency plan, and that it also supports future high-capacity solutions based on tighter frequency reuse.

2.1.3. Radio Network Planning

An important prerequisite (and to a large extent, one that will determine the success of Edge) is that network operators should be able to introduce Edge gradually. The initial deployment of Edge-capable transceivers will supplement standard GSM transceivers in a subset of cells where Edge coverage is desired. An integrated mixture of circuit-switched, GPRS and Edge users will thus coexist in the same frequency band. To minimize operator efforts and costs, Edge-related implementation must not require extensive modification of the radio network plan (including cell planning, frequency planning, the setting of power levels and other cell parameters).

2.1.4. Channel Management

After Edge has been introduced, a cell will typically include two types of transceiver: standard GSM transceivers and Edge transceivers. Each physical channel (time slot) in the cell can be viewed as being one of at least four channel types:

1. GSM speech and GSM circuit-switched data (CSD);

2. GPRS packet data;

3. Circuit-switched data, enhanced circuits witched data (ECSD), and GSM speech;

4. Edge packet data (EGPRS), which allows a mix of GPRS and EGPRS users simultaneously.

While standard GSM transceivers only support channel types 1 and 2, Edge transceivers support all four channel types. Physical channels are dynamically defined according to terminal capabilities and needs in the cell. For example, if several speech users are active, the number of type-1 channels is increased, at the expense of GPRS and Edge channels. Obviously, channel management must be automated, to avoid the splitting of channels into static groups. Otherwise, trunking efficiency would diminish.

3. Interleaving

To increase the performance of the higher coding schemes in EGPRS (MCS7 to MCS9) even at low C/I, the interleaving procedure has been changed within the EGPRS standard. When frequency hopping is used, the radio environment is changing on a per-burst level. Because a radio block is interleaved and transmitted over four bursts for GPRS, each burst may experience a completely different interference environment. [7]

If just one of the four bursts is not properly received, the entire radio block will not be properly decoded and will have to be retransmitted. In the case of CS4 for GPRS, hardly any error protection is used at all. With EGPRS, the standard handles the higher coding scheme differently than GPRS to combat this problem. MCS7, MCS8 and MCS9 actually transmit two radio blocks over the four bursts, and the interleaving occurs over two bursts instead of four. This reduces the number of bursts that must be retransmitted should errors occur. The likelihood of receiving two consecutive error free bursts is higher than receiving four consecutive error free bursts. This means that the higher coding schemes

for EDGE have a better robustness with regard to frequency hopping.

4. EDGE & GPRS

EDGE, or the Enhanced Data Rate for Global Evolution, is the new mantra in the Global Internet Connectivity scene. EDGE is the new name for GSM 384. The technology was named GSM 384 because of the fact that it provided Data  Transmission  at a rate of 384 Kbps. It consists of the 8 pattern time slot, and the speed could be achieved when all the 8 time slots were used. The idea behind EDGE is to obtain even higher data rates on the current 200 KHz GSM carrier, by changing the type of the modulation used.

Now, this is the most striking feature. EDGE, as being once a GSM technology, works on the existing GSM or the TDMA carriers, and enables them to many of the 3G services. Although EDGE will have a little technical impact, since its fully based on GSM or the TDMA carriers, but it might just get an EDGE over the up coming technologies, and of course, the GPRS. With EDGE, the operators and service providers can offer more wireless data application, including wireless multimedia, e-mail (Web Based), Web Infotainment, and above all, the technology of Video Conferencing.

Now all these technologies that were named earlier, were the clauses of the IMT-UMTS 3G Package. But, with EDGE, we can get all these 3G services on our existing GSM phones, which might just prove to be a boon to the user.

The current scenario clearly states that EDGE will definitely score higher than GPRS. The former allows its users to increase the data speed and throughput capacity, to around 3-4 times higher than GPRS.

Secondly, it allows the existing GSM or the TDMA carriers to give the sophisticated 3G services. And with 1600 Million subscribers of GSM in over 170 countries, offer the full Global Roaming, anywhere between India to Japan and to San Francisco. Based on an 8 PSK modulation, it allows higher bit rate across the air Interface. There is one symbol for every 3 bits. Thus, EDGE Rate is equal to 3x GPRS Rate.

5. Future Evolution Towards WCDMA

The next evolutionary step for the GSM/EDGE cellular system includes enhancements of service provisioning for the packet-switched domain with the service provisioning in UMTS/UTRAN (UMTS terrestrial radio access network). GERAN will provide improved support for all quality of service (QoS) classes defined for UMTS: interactive, background, streaming and conversational. By doing so, a new range of applications, including IP multimedia applications, will be adequately supported. This part of the GSM/EDGE evolution focuses on support for the conversational and streaming service classes, because adequate support for interactive and background services already exists. Additionally, parallel simultaneous bearers will support multimedia applications with different QoS characteristics towards the same MS, such as multiple media streams handled through IMS domain. A driver for such evolution on the packet-switched side is the paradigm shift within the telecommunications world from circuit to packet-switched communications.

Both the core network defined for GPRS and the current GSM/EDGE radio access network require modifications to support enhanced packet services. The GPRS/EGPRS networks can quickly and cost effectively evolve with market needs, and align with services provided by WCDMA networks. The current evolution of GSM/EDGE, which covers all of the above aspects, is being standardized in 3GPP TSG GERAN. [4]

6. EDGE in Pakistan

Pakistan has the sixth largest population in the world – approximately 150 million. There are currently four mobile operators in the country. Mobile penetration at the end of 2003 was just 2.3% with a subscriber base of 3.4 million, while fixed line penetration was approximately 2.4%. Many geographic areas in Pakistan are without telephone coverage. To accompany recent positive economic development in Pakistan and the inherently low mobile penetration, high growth within the mobile segment is expected. At the moment the people in Pakistan are more concern with the text-enabled facility like SMS. Although the introduction of GPRS gave a new concept and new boost in Cellular network but still, people are not that much concern using Internet by their terminal. Few think that it still more costly and few believe that GPRS didn’t develop the interest for using Internet if we compared it by computer.

In April 2004 Norwegian mobile telecom operator, Telenor, bid for and ultimately won a license to operate a cellular network in Pakistan. The license covers the operation of Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM), General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) and Enhanced Data Rates for Global Evolution (EDGE) technology for the network. [14]

Telenor Pakistan has signed two deals with mobile infrastructure contractors for different areas of the network:

Nokia have signed a three-year deal to build and operate a GSM / GPRS / EDGE network to cover the central and Northern Punjab region (phase one), centered around Lahore.

Siemens have signed a deal to build a GSM / GPRS / EDGE network to cover the southern areas of Pakistan, centered around Islamabad.

Further enhancements in data capability over the core GPRS / GSM network will be provided in both networks with the installation of Enhanced Data for Global (GSM) Evolution technology. This component of the two systems will be installed after the initial roll-outs and will allow the subscribers to have the use of advanced mobile services such as downloading video and music clips, full multimedia messaging, high-speed color Internet access and email on the move.

Nortel Networks will upgrade Ufone’s existing wireless systems and supply new GSM/GPRS core network and radio access equipment, including Mobile Switching Center, Home Location Register (HLR) and advanced Base Transceiver Stations (BTS).

A key component of the Ufone expansion will be Nortel Networks BTS 12000, designed to deliver additional capacity within a GSM/GPRS network while positioning operators to drive lower costs and to offer advanced wireless services based on third generation (3G) EDGE (Enhanced Data for GSM Evolution) technology. The expansion will also include Nortel Networks Passport Packet Voice Gateway (PVG) for migration of TDM voice trunking to a packet-based infrastructure.

7. Benefits

As highlighted previously the need to reduce business risk and make the best use of existing resources is of paramount importance within today’s business environment.

7.1. Financial

GSM based networks have become the standard within the cellular landscape. As EDGE is a GSM based technology and provides an enhancement for GPRS at a little additional cost it is considered the best way in which to capitalize on existing resources. [1]

7.1.1. Radio Access Network

In most cases GPRS enabled base stations and BSC’s can be simply upgraded to EDGE by way of relatively low-cost software and hardware upgrades, which will pro-long the life cycle of the deployed RAN elements.

7.1.2. Core Network

For GPRS enhancement, there is very little modification to be completed within a GPRS enabled core network, thus enhancing the sunk core network investment.

7.1.3. Antenna Sites

There is no requirement for additional antenna sites when deploying EDGE. Assuming high quality linear amplifiers with high RF output power are used within the BTS, the coverage pattern will be the same as the existing GPRS deployment, so protecting existing site investment.

7.1.4. Spectrum Utilization

EDGE triples the GPRS data capacity whilst using the existing GSM spectrum and offers up to three times the GPRS data rate to the end user. EDGE is spectrally the most efficient radio technology for data applications requiring up to 100Kb/s throughput (compared to CDMA and WCDMA), and only WCDMA is spectrally better for higher throughputs.

7.1.5. Applications

GPRS enabled applications and services will generally not require any additional investment to become EDGE compatible. This is also valid for known WCDMA applications.

Although the financial benefits of EDGE can be apportioned to individual network elements as outlined above, one of the main business drivers is that EDGE forms an essential part of the overall GSM evolution towards a seamless multi-radio GSM/ GPRS/EDGE/WCDMA network. As mentioned previously GSM is the main standard for cellular communications worldwide and the business benefits of deploying an industry standard technology can be seen in nearly every aspect of a network deployment, from end-user devices, to applications to hardware.

7.2. For Operator

Operators can also experiences the advantages of EDGE in following ways.

7.2.1. Migration to wireless multimedia services

The operator can increase data revenues by offering attractive new types applications to end-users.

7.2.2. Improved customer satisfaction

Increased data capacity and higher data throughput will decrease response times for all data services, thus keeping end users satisfied and connected.

7.2.3. Early deployment of 3G type applications

EDGE networks are expected to emerge in year 2001, when mature markets are likely to start demanding multimedia applications.

7.2.4. Quick network implementation

EDGE will not require new network elements and EDGE capability can be introduced gradually to the network.

7.3. For User

7.3.1. Improved quality of service

Increased data capacity and higher data throughput will eventually satisfy the customers’ need for QoS.

7.3.2. Personal multimedia services

Attractive new types of applications and terminals will become available.

7.3.3. Potentially lower price per bit

Lower cost of data capacity for high-speed data applications gives the operator flexibility in pricing.

8. Conclusion

While the tug of war between access technologies – CDMA vs. UMTS vs. GSM — continues to be debated globally, EDGE provides an ideal solution for GSM carriers to add data capacity using limited spectrum. Keeping in view the fact that GSM supports more subscribers today than any other access technology (roughly 65 to 70% of the global subscriber market), and that GSM/GPRS operators are scrambling to add capacity to support user growth and launch next generation data services, the increased capacity and throughput offered by EDGE becomes very compelling. And, in a market where wireless carriers must squeeze the most out of capital outlays–past and future, it is no real surprise that we are going to see a renewed wave of interest in EDGE from our GSM customers.

Today the position of EDGE as a technology evolution of GSM is clear. Initially promoted as an alternative to WCDMA and generally a niche technology, EDGE is now regarded as a key enabler for GSM/EDGE and WCDMA operators alike. Being able to drive business value from existing GSM infrastructure and spectrum is one of the main advantages, and along-with the ability of EDGE to reduce CAPEX, time-to-market and time-to-revenue, with regards the delivery of global high-speed data services, EDGE is a must technology.

The cellular companies working in Pakistan did not have the license for the EDGE. Now as the introduction of some new companies like Telenor and WARID, it is possible that in near future Pakistan will also be able to use this facility. Then GPRS can become a real important factor in cellular network, as the people in Pakistan will use the Internet not only for downloading ring tones but also can enjoy the streaming videos by their cell phone and so many other facilities.